BIOGRAFHY OF IMAM GHOZALI
A. Life Imam Ghozali
1. Place of birth Imam Ghozali
The full name of Imam Ghozali is Abu Hamid Muhammad Ibnu Muhammad al- Ghazali, he is known as the hujjatul islam (defender of islam) because his services were great in keeping the heretical teachings of islam from the influence of bid’ah and flow rationalism of yunani. He was born in the year 450 hijriyah/ 1059 masehi at Ghozalah, a small town in Thus Khurosah which at that time was one of the centers of science in the Islamic world.
He was born from a very simple family, his father was a craftsman as well as traders of wool weaving, and religious, having a high religious fervor, as seen on sympathetic to the ulama and expect their children to be ulama wo always gives advice to people.
That is why before his father died his son left (Imam Ghozali) and his brother (Ahmad) when it was still small, entrusted to his father and expert on Sufism for guidance and education.
Though raised in a modest family circumstances does not make him feel inferior and lazy, it is precisely his passion in studying various sciences, then he transformed into a great ulama and a sufi. And estimated Imam Ghozali live in simplicity as a sufi until the age of 15 years.
2. Education and travel in search of knowledge
Imam Ghazali begin his education in his native district, he studied the al- Qur’an and the fundamentals of the science of religion to his father. Followed by learning the basics of knowledge on Thus. After Sufism expert friend of his father could no longer meet the needs of both, he put them to school to gain knowledge.
Some of the art was dominated of Imam Ghozali is ushul Fiqih, Mantiq, Philosophy and Mysticism.
He studied jurisprudence at Imam Kharamain. Imam Ghazali was sincere to his master all the schools, err (differences of opinion), debate, mantiq, read the wisdom and philosophy.
After Imam Kharamain died, then he went to Baghdad and taught at Nidzamiyyah. He is author of the book al- Basith schools, al- Wasith, al- Wajiz and al- Khulasoh. In writing his book of ushul fiqih al- Mushtofa, al- Manqul, Bidayatul Hidayah, al- Ma’lud Filkhilafiyyah, Syifa’a fi Bayani Matsail and other books in various branches of science.
In 465- 470 hijriyah, Imam Ghazali studied jurisprudence and basic sciences other than Ahmad al- Radzaski in Thus and out from Abu Nasral Ismailli in Jurjan. After Imam Ghozali back to Thus, and for 3 years in place of his birth, he reevaluate Jurjan lesson while studying Sufism to Yusuf al- Nassaj (died in 487 hijriyah). Imam Ghazali meet the al- Juwaini and acquire knowledge and mantiq word. According Abdul Ghofur Ismail al- Farisi, Imam Ghozali be the most intelligent critic of his time. Imam Haramain take pride in the performance of his students.
After his master’s death, al- Ghazali left Naisabur into the askar country to meet with Nidzham al- Mulk. In this area he was honored to argue with the Ulama’. Of the debate which was won this, his name is becoming increasingly popular and admired for the breadth of his knowledge. In 484 hijriyah/ 1091 masehi, Imam Ghazali was appointed as professor in the Madrasah Nidzamiyah, this is explained in his book al- Munqis min Dahalal. While teaching at the school, Imam Ghazali diligently studied philosophy autodidact, especially the thought of al- farabi ibnu shina ibnu miskawaih and ikhwan al- shofa. Mastery of philosophy is evident in works such as al- maqasid falsafah tuhaful al- falasiyah.
In 484 hijriyah/ 1091 masehi, Imam Ghazali hit by doubts about the science are studied, doubts work and the works they produce. So he was suffering from the disease for the past 2 months and is difficult to treat. Imam Ghazali therefore can not carry out their duties as a professor at the madrasah nidzamiyyah, which eventually he left Baghdad to the city of Damascus. For about 2 years the city of Damascus Imam Ghazali he did uzlah, riyadhah and mujahadah. He later moved to baitul maqdis Palestinians to do the same worship. After that moved him to perform the pilgrimage and visit the tomb of the Rasulullah SAW.
On his return from the holy land, visiting Imam Ghazali Thus hometown. Her he remained in a state of doubt by kholwat lasts up to 10 years. The period that he wrote his famous “Ihya’ Ulumuddin”.
Imam Ghazali died before sunrise in his hometown (Thus) on Monday, 14 jumadil akhir Hijriyah 505 (1111 masehi). Imam Ghazali was buried in al- Zhahir Tabiran Thus capital.
B. Works- works of Imam Ghazali
Among the works of Imam Ghazali was :
1. Maqhasid al- falasifah (the goal filusuf), as the first essay and contains the problems of philosophy.
2. Tahaful al- falasifah (clutter the minds of filusufi), this book was composed while he was in Baghdad when his soulhit by doubts. Imam Ghazali in this book and the philosophy threatens filusuf hard.
3. Miyar al- ‘Ilmi (criteria sciences)
4. Ihya’ Ulumuddin (revive the religious science), this book is his greatest work for several years in a state of moving between Damascus, Yerusallem, Hijaz and Thus containing your jurisprudence, mysticism and philosophy.
5. Al- Munqis min al- Dlolal (rescue from straying), this book is a history of the development of the mind of al- Ghazali himself to reflect on his attitude towards some kind of knowledge and the way of reaching God.
6. Al- Ma’arif al- Aqliyah (knowledge of national)
7. Miskyat al- Anwar (lights that glow), this book contains a discussion of moratily and mysticism.
8. Minhaj al- Abidin (way to devote ourselves to god).
9. Al- Iqtishod fi al- I’tiqod (moderisasi in aqidah).
10. Ayyuha al- Walad.
11. Al- Mustasyfa.
12. Ilham al- Awwam al- Ilmal Kalam.
13. Mizan al- Amal.
14. Akhlaq al- Abros wa an- Najah min al- Asyhar (good people morals and safety of evil).
15. Asrar Ilmu ad- Din (secret religious knowledge).
16. Al- Wasith (the middle).
17. Al- Wajiz (which concise).
18. Az- Zariyyah Ilaa’ Makarim as- Syahi’ah (glorious way to shari’ah).
19. Al- Hibr al- Masbuq fi Nasihoh al- Mutuk (precious metal goods description counsel to the king).
20. Al- Manqul min Taqliqoh al- Ushul (compete choice of stains ushul fiqih).
21. Syifa al- Qolil fi Bayan al- Syaban wa al- Mukhil wa Masalik at- Ta’wil (medicine people envy, explanations about things vague and ways of seeing.
22. Tarbiyatul Aulad fi Islam (children’s education in islam).
23. Tahzib al- Ushul (elaboration of the science of jurisprudence feqih).
24. Al- Ikhtishos fi al- I’tiqod (simplicity in confidence).
25. Yaaqut at- Ta’wil (ta’wil jewel in interpreting al- Qur’an).
BIOGRAFHY OF IMAM GHOZALI